Historical Timeline

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Historical Timeline

Please note that this is a living page, new research and information is continuously being added.

Date Event Notes
c. 1427 Birth of Jehan Denys Great explorer of 1506 and first recorded ancestor of the Denys family.
1506 Jehan Denys expedition to Newfoundland Jehan Denys is the first recorded ancestor of one of the founding families of RSMIN, the DeLaRondes. This expedition is quoted to be "the first of the Normans who landed in Newfoundland in an authentic way" (Dionne, 107-108).
May 7, 1589 Death of Mathurin Denys, Sieur de la Thibaudière. He died while defending King Henry III of France. He was given letters of nobility, which were passed on to his son.
1632 Nicolas Denys and Simon Denys De La Trinité (great grandsons of Jehan Denys) arrive in Acadia from France. The Delaronde's are the descendents of Simon Denys De La Trinité.
August 2, 1675 Birth of Louis Denys delaRonde. He was the first Captain Commandant of troops sent be the King to Acadia. Likely the Louis Denys who introduced salt manufacturing into Canada.
1679 Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Duluth established a fur trading post at the mouth of the Kaministiquia River (present day Thunder Bay region). This port would later be the site of one of the first Métis settlements in Canada. The ancestors of Red Sky Métis Independent Nation found their home here.
1713 Treaty of Utrecht This peace treaty ceded Acadia and Newfoundland to England. In order to counter the loss the French migrated to Ile Royale (Cape Breton Island). Louis Denys delaRonde surveyed the island and made recommendations for settlement etc.
1717 New post established at the mouth of the Kaministiquia River by Zachary Robutel de la Nouë This post closed in 1758 and 1760 during the British conquest of New France.
July 13, 1722 Birth of (Pierre?) Francoise Paul (Gitchi) Denys deLaRonde Gitchi was an officer at Fort Ponchartrain. He was killed int he battle of LaColle.
1755-1764 The Expulsion of the Acadians Also known as the Great Upheaval, the Great Expulsion , the Great Depression and Le Grande Dérangement
February 10, 1763 Treaty of Paris Ended the Seven Years' War and France ceded all of its territories in mainland North America to Britain. Also, it resulted in the Royal Proclamation, which was a crucial moment in Canadian Aboriginal History
October 7, 1763 Royal Proclamation Issued by King George III following the Treaty of Paris. This proclamation is significant to First Nations in Canada as it forms the basis of their land claims. Also, it is mentioned in section 25 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
1794 Jay Treaty Credited with resolving issues remaining since the Treaty of Paris, 1783. Also, the American-Canadian boundary was to be sent to arbitration.
1807 Fort Kaministiquia renamed Fort William by North West Company {CONFIRM}
1815 Tangible evidence of the recognition of a distinct Métis community and identity in the Great Lakes region. Outlined in page, Many Roads to Red River: Métis Genesis in the Great Lakes Region: 1680-1815
1812-1821 Pemmican War A series of armed conflicts between the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company after the establishment of the Red River Colony. The war ended with the merger of the two companies in 1821.
1821 Merger of North West Company and Hudson's Bay Company.
1840 Act of Union 1840 After the Act of Union 1840, according to E.B. Borron's 1892 Report, the Imperial government attempted to discontinue the distribution of presents to First Nations in the province of Canada. During the debate regarding the distribution of presents a Richard T. Pennefather concludes atet "we do not for a moment assert that the English Government should be bound by unauthorized promises made by Indian Agents." This quote is used by E.B. Borron to argue for the removal of Métis from the pay lists, as their inclusion, according to him, was done by unauthorized Indian Agents" (Borron 36).
1845 Prospecting of the North Shore of Lake Superior begins
Fall of 1848 Alan and Angus Macdonell with Chiefs Shingwauk and Bebanaigooching force the closure of the Quebec Superior Mine at Mica Bay. Also known as the 'Mica Bay Incident.' According to Ernest Epp's Report, the Robinson-Superior Treaty, 1850 was a direct result of this event.
January 7, 1850 Letter to T.G. Anderson from James Anderson includes a census of the Nipigon area This letter, which includes a census of the Nipigon Lake area, mentions a 'half-breed,' born on Lake Superior.
September 7, 1850 Signing of the Robinson-Superior Treaty, 1850 The Red Sky Métis Independent Nation™ consists of the decedents of the eighty-four 'half-breeds' included in the Robinson-Superior Treaty, 1850.
September 24, 1850 Robinson's Report Regarding Treaty Negotiations This report, authored by W.B. Robinson, outlines the negotiations and results of the Robinson Treaties. Specifically, this report discusses the details surrounding the inclusion of 84 'half-breeds' in the Robinson-Superior Treaty, 1850.
1859 An Act Respecting Civilization and Enfranchisement of Certain Indians This legislation was passed in 1859 and provided a definition of who were to be considered 'Indians.'
July 1, 1867 Canadian Confederation
1869 The Red River Rebellion
May 12, 1870 Manitoba Act This Act created the Province of Manitoba. This section this Act stipulated that Métis would receive a portion of land in exchange for the extinguishment of their Aboriginal rights. Treaties 1, 2 and 3 would soon follow, these treaties dealt with the Métis outside of Manitoba.
1871 Treaties No.1 & 2 Arose from the apparent necessity to treat with the Aboriginal Bands that lived between Thunder Bay and Stone Fort.
October 3, 1873 Treaty No. 3 This treaty stipulated that the 'Half-Breeds' would be given a choice to characterize himself as either 'White' or 'Indian.' Thereby beginning the early stages of the destruction of Métis identity.
1875 Beginning of construction on the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) in Thunder Bay. After the decline of the fur trade, many ancestors of the RSMIN worked on the construction of the CPR in the Thunder Bay region.
1876 Indian Act was passed The Indian Act stipulated how reserves and bands would operate and defined who is, and who is not recognised as an "Indian."
December 31, 1891 E.B. Borron's Report to Oliver Mowat Exclusionary policies become more pronounced as E.B. Borron argues for the removal of Métis from the pay lists.
1885 The North-West Rebellion While the Riel Rebellions did not take place in the Lake Superior region, they may have contributed to the decision of many Métis in said region to relocate to Aboriginal reserves.
June 1985 Bill C-31, Bill to Amend the Indian Act Bill C-31 passed into law in April 1985 to bring the Indian Act into line with gender equality under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
2005 Current Locations of RSMIN Citizens This is a list of the locations of RSMIN citizens as of 2005.

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